Daum House (1878 -)
Poppy perfume bottle
Glass paste and silver
Signed at the base of the bottle on the glass: Daum Nancy (and the Lorraine cross between Daum and Nancy)
H. 15.5 - D. 3.2 cm
Lovely perfume bottle in molten glass decorated with poppies and small purple plum stars enhanced with gold on a gradient background.
The Compagnie française du cristal Daum is a crystal factory founded in Nancy in 1878 by the Daum brothers. Jean Daum (1825-1885), notary in Bitche, was the first to understand glass. At the heart of the Franco-German war of 1870, he financed the Verrerie de Nancy which was in financial distress. Auguste Daum (1853-1909), a future jurist in training, took over the head of the Verrerie and in 1891 offered the art department to his brother Antonin (1864-1930). He gives him all the means to work: he starts with a few simple models to quickly continue with the acid etching. He then produced models of two or three-layer glasses, using wheel engraving techniques.
The Daum workshops have formed some of the great names in Art Nouveau. In 1894, the painter Jacques Gruber was the first artist of the house and propelled glassmaking into the closed circle of the great art industries. The works will appear at the Chicago Universal Exhibition in 1893, at the Nancy Exhibition in 1894, then that of Lyon the same year, and those of Bordeaux in 1895, Brussels in 1895 and 1897 and will receive numerous distinctions. Henry Bergé is the second artist of the house, as master decorator. In 1904, Almaric Walter developed glass paste.
Under the leadership of Émile Gallé, they are part of the creative movement of the School of Nancy, including Antonin Daum, who will become its vice-president. He played an important role in 1909 during the international exhibition of the East of France which will also mark the end of the School of Nancy. Auguste died in 1909, and Antonin remained active until his death in 1930, while sharing the responsibilities of the family house with the sons of Augustus: Jean, Henri and Paul. Jean died in 1916, Henri was a manager like his father. Paul graduated from the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of
Nancy, he will gradually take Antonin's place.
After 1918, the Daums ensure the adaptation of the company to new production conditions, anxious to preserve quality, techniques and aesthetic orientations more than utilitarian. The company continues to participate in major exhibitions: Barcelona in 1923,
International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris in 1925, as well as the Colonial Exhibition of Paris in 1931. In the 1920s, Paul oriented production towards Art Deco, the public moving away from Art Nouveau, and the successful business. Paul then became Director of a second crystal factory in Croismare in 1925. It supplied white glassware, balls, and fancy items from Lorrain. Pierre Davesn will create models from 1928.
The economic crisis of the 1930s led to the closure of the crystal factory in 1934. A few large orders allowed the company to continue its production all the same: in 1935, the Transatlantic Company ordered 90,000 glass and crystal pieces for Normandy. After the Second World War, crystal takes a predominant place, under the direction of Henri and Michel Daum.
Antoine Froissart (1920-1971), the eldest of the grandchildren of Antoninus, engineer from the central school of Paris, perfected the manufacture of a particularly transparent and brilliant crystal. This new crystal promotes the creation of pieces with thick and flexible shapes, and with a luminous appearance.
Jacques, Augustus' grandson, breathed new life into 1965 by calling on contemporary designers, including Cesar, who during a stay in Nancy, will explore the material.
From 1976 to 1990, Pierre de Chérisey, Antonin's grandson, was the last president of the Daum family at the head of the family business.
Since then, it will be redeemed several times.
The internationally renowned Daum crystal works still exist and many artists continue to work there.
Maison Daum, Perfume bottle with poppies, 19th century